A Possibility of Fast Running of TYRANNOSAURUS

Yoshiyuki USAMI, Ryuta KINUGASA


Running performance of bipedal heavy theropod Tyrannosaurus has been controversial in the field of paleontology. In 1980’s Tyrannosaurus was considered as fast runner who would run at a speed of 18 m/s~20 m/s. In 2000’s series of works have been published that stated disadvantage of fast running of Tyrannosaurus. However, speed estimation of running speed is qualitative because that those are based on the static theory. In 2009 a numerical simulation study was achieved and showed a possibility of 9 m/s running of Tyrannosaurus, however, the parameters range used in the simulation was not fully investigated. In this work we achieved numerical simulation of running motion of Tyrannosaurus based on reliable parameters ranges which are known in preset animals. Our numerical simulation shows a possibility of 13~14 m/s running of Tyrannosaurus. This speed exceeds the fastest human running speed which was marked as 12.4 m/s by Usain Bolt in2009. However, we point out that considering only muscle shortening is insufficient to estimate best performance of animal locomotion. Recently, researches have revealed that tendon works collaboratively with muscle in human jumping. Many researches of experimental biology have reported extremely high power output in animal movement such as tongue projection of toad. The system is considered using the mechanism of elastic storage, not only the one of simple muscle shortening. Then, it is hard to predict accurate maximum running speed of extinct animal such as Tyrannosaurus at present.


Biomechanics, Dinosaur, Locomotion, Tyrannosaurus, Theropod


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