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Empirical Equation for the V50 Velocity of Small Arms Armour Piercing Rounds Onto Armour Steel



This paper describes an empirical model for estimating the ballistic limit of a small arms armour piercing projectile with a hard steel core against a steel target. The input variables are steel thickness and hardness, projectile core diameter and mass as well as the obliquity of impact. The model constants were found by nonlinear curve fitting against a set of 98 data points found in literature. The model was able to reproduce the results with a standard deviation of the absolute error of 5.8 %. To further validate the model, ballistic tests were performed with two small arms AP projectiles not included in the model optimisation against two steel types. The model was able to estimate these four new experimental data points with a standard deviation of the absolute error of 7.3 %. This supports the usefulness of the model for armour and test design.


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